Inky the wild octopus has escaped from the New Zealand National Aquarium. Apparently, he made it out of a small opening in his tank, and suction beaker publishes indicate he found his way to a drain tube that emptied to the ocean.
Nice job Inky. Your courage devotes us the chance to reflect on just how smart cephalopods genuinely are. In fact, they are real smart. Octopus expert Jennifer Mather spent years studying them and found that they not only display the capacity to learn many features of their surrounding, they will transition from exploration to something approaching play if given the chance.
For example, Mather recounts the way two octopuses repeatedly used their water jets to blow an object towards an opposing stream of water in their tank: what she describes as the aquatic equivalent of bouncing a ball. Further, as Mather explains, cephalopods are inventive problem solvers. When predating clams, for example, octopuses will use a variety of strategies to remove the meat from the shell, often cycling through strategies pulling the shell open, chipping the shells margin, or drilling through the shell in a trial-and-error way.
Its not only cephalopods, of course: lots of non-humans are intelligent too. In their own various kinds of style, lots of machines are smart as well some are better than the best humen at some of our most complicated games. You can probably sense the issues to coming next. Does this mean lots of non-humans octopuses, crows, monkeys, machines are conscious? And if so, what do we do about that?
Such questions are attracting a lot of interest. In the past month alone, resulting primatologist Franz de Waal has written on anthropomorphism and consciousness in chimps; philosophers and science writers have discussed consciousness in artificial intelligences and whether machines could become self-aware without us realising; and the neuroscientist Michael Graziano has argued that current the notion of consciousness are worse than incorrect while predicting that well have constructed a conscious machine within 50 years.
Yet its hard to know what kind of mental life non-human animals actually have, and whether it is anything like ours. If it is, does that make it incorrect to eat them? Or consider machines, which may develop mental lives of their own at some point. Were ill-prepared to recognise if or when this will happen, even if we may eventually come to have moral responsibilities towards machines.
The best thing Ive read lately on consciousness in non-humans is the short story, The Hunter Captain, by the philosopher and fiction writer David John Baker. It involves an foreigner race that encounters a human being for the first time. According to their neuroscience, it turns out that the human absence the special neural structure they believe necessary for producing consciousness. Like all the other animals they have encountered, including the talking animals they violently kill at the table before eating, the human is merely intelligent but lacks consciousness. As such the human has no moral status she is something to be hunted, or enslaved. As you might expect, the human demur. Some alien-human debate on the philosophy of mind ensues.
Bakers story dramatises very well two key decision phases we face when worrying about consciousness in non-humans. The first is organized around whether consciousness is the key thing needed for moral status that is, the thing you have that generates moral reasons to treat you in certain ways( avoid harming you, respect your rights ). Even if consciousness is key, its not clear which is something we draw a line: some tell moral worth requires the kind of consciousness links with feeling pain and pleasure( phenomenal consciousness ), others point to the kind associated with self-awareness, or self-consciousness.
The second decision phase surrounds the nature of consciousness, and whether a certain level or type of intelligence is enough. If so, just how clever do you have to be, and how do we measure that? Even if intelligence alone isnt enough to warrant consciousness, it might not be psychologically possible for us humans to confront a highly intelligent being without feeling the urge that it is conscious. Should we trust that urge?
Consider, again, the octopus. We can tell from behavioural evidence that they are intelligent. But it is not clear how intelligent the objective is, or whether that is even the right topic. Octopus intelligence is shaped, in part, by octopus wants the kind of intellect they have and require is dependent upon their evolutionary history, their environment, and their body-type. Given these factors, it builds sense to say that octopuses are highly intelligent. Consciousness might be closely tied to the particularities of human-like intelligence. But dedicated how little we are all familiar with consciousness, it seems foolhardy to believes such a thing at present.
Other topics demand a hearing. Do octopuses feel pain? They surely seem to, although the sceptic might claim that all they do is react to stimuli as if they were in pain. Are they self-aware? We do not know.
On these difficult questions, there is very little consensus. My purpose here has been to work up to the questions. Because there is an obvious sense in which we all have to decide what to think about these questions. We all already interact with arguably conscious non-human animals of various types of high levels of intelligence, and many of us will at some future phase interact with arguably conscious machines of various levels of intelligence. Unlike Inky the wild octopus, speculation about consciousness in non-humans isnt going anywhere.
In conjunction with Oxford Universitys Practical Ethics blog
Read more: www.iflscience.com