Stalked by polar bears, hold back at gunpoint and sleep in fields strewn with unexploded mortar shells – just what inspires the new generation of self-styled modern explorers?
Intrepid adventurers have been making their mark for centuries, from Capt James Cook’s mapping of Australia and New Zealand, to Sir Ranulph Fiennes attaining the first unaided crossing of the Antarctic.
But in the 21 st Century, when so much of the world is a well-trodden route, the motivation of the so-called modern-day explorer moving beyond simply being the first to step on new land.
Most recently, Benedict Allen built headlines when he went missing while trying to reach a remote tribe in Papua New Guinea.
After becoming ailment with a fever he became disorientated and was unable to call for help because he had purposely gone into the jungle without a phone.
Happily, the 57 -year-old live to tell the tale, but his brush with danger is not wholly unique amongst the modern explorer community.
He and four others talk about the source of their wanderlust.
‘The biggest perils are often banal’
“I’ve been mugged, shot at and charged by elephants. But the biggest hazards are often more banal.”
It’s a point explorer Levison Wood is acutely aware of. In 2014, journalist Matthew Power died from heat stroke in Uganda whilst documenting Mr Wood’s journey along the Nile.
Despite inducing several attempts to call for apache helicopters, the remote nature of their location made it impossible to secure help.
“On a personal level I was questioning why it happened and also whether or not to carry on.
“I had some deep soul searching to do but decided to carry on as it was a route of honouring Matt’s memory.”
Mr Wood’s first big expedition was aged 22, when he hitch-hiked from England to India.
But the 35 -year-old, originally from Stoke in Staffordshire, says despite his daring lifestyle, he is not entirely comfortable with the word “explorer”.
“It brings up images of pith helmets and planting flags in the land[ but] for me, it’s about traveling – I want to look beyond the horizon.
“It’s about sharing knowledge and learning new things – when you travel, you are an ambassador for your country.”
He says travelling can also offer a different perspective about a place, citing a recent journey to Syria as a good example.
“I stayed in Damascus and you wouldn’t know a war is going on. Millions[ of people] live and get on with their lives and that is a forgotten story.
“I’m not saying people should go on holiday to Syria – I simply show people the truth and let them make their intellects up.”
He admits that travelling to often risky places is not easy on their own families, particularly on his “poor mum”.
“When I was 21, I hitchhiked across Iraq. She guessed I’d been on holiday in Greece.
“I believe she’s given up worrying.”
‘A brilliant style to tell stories’
Pip Stewart, 33, describes herself as an “accidental adventurer.”
She was working as a journalist in Asia when in 2013, her partner persuaded her to cycle back to London with him.
Her first reaction was to wonder if he had “lost the plot”, but 13 months later, she had encompassed 9,941 miles( 16,000 km) and visited 26 countries.
“I find it to be a brilliant mechanism to tell tales because the people you meet and the link you make are phenomenal.”
Ms Stewart, from Cheltenham in Gloucestershire , now treats exploration as her full-time career.
“It’s like any business, it takes a while to make any fund out of it.
“Eventually you make a living through doing talks, for example at trade indicates.
“The rise of social media has helped too. Brands will want to work with you and then I merely focus on writing about my travels.”
Though Ms Stewart enjoys the life-changing experiences of her adventures, she also appreciates the hazards involved.
“I was cycling in Tajikistan along the Wakhan Corridor. We found a place to camp at dusk.
“The next morning, I went to pull out the tent peg and realised my head had been 3cm from an unexploded mortar[ shell ].
“We reported it and they said a number of cows had recently been blown up after stepping on mortars.
“It was a lucky escape.”
‘A need to beat our chests’
Ed Stafford may have walked the length of the Amazon River, but these days he has to balance his adventures with being a “boring old dad”.
“It’s all well and good being young and taking risks, but the Amazon was reckless. I was largely uninsured and it was dangerous.
“My perspective has changed now I have a family.”
The 42 -year-old left Peterborough and headed to South America in 2010 after turning his back on careers in military and finance.
He says it devoted him a platform to “achieve something and is more and more confident.”
“I’m sure most explorers would say they are a bit insecure. We have a need to beat our chests.”
Mr Stafford’s Amazon expedition took nearly two-and-a-half years and almost came to a halting when monies dried up.
“I ran out of money halfway through. I had to construct YouTube videos with a PayPal link below them. I was crowdfunding before it had even been invented.”
The explorer was also held up at arrow and gunpoint, arrested for narcotic smuggling and encountered alligators, electric eels and jaguars.
“I was also arrested for murder. A man had gone missing and I arrived in the village that day. The chief apprehended me and I was locked up in a wooden shanty and interrogated. It was farcical.”
Mr Stafford was released after eight hours and continued with his journey.
But he has largely hung up his backpack to work for the Discovery Channel and bring up his eight-month-old son – the appropriately named Ranulph.